The Republic of India is located in the South Asia and bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. India is the world’s seventh-largest country by total area, which covers almost 3.29 million km², and the second-largest by population. More than 1.22 billion people reside in the country.

For ages India was considered to be the land of vast wealth. Even nowadays it is hard to argue with this statement. A lot of different minerals such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, coal, oil, gold and gemstones are mined in the country. India is inhabited by numerous species of plants and animals. Many of them are unique to India and cannot be found elsewhere. The Indian elephant and the Bengal tiger are among the most famous animals of the country. India is one of the oldest countries in world. Its history began more than three thousand years B.C. Rich culture and traditions of India are well-known around the world. They had a profound impact on different nations.

The history of Indian jewelry began more than five thousand years ago. The jewelry manufacturing quickly developed thank to the rich gold and gem resources of the country. In time different techniques of jewelry manufacturing were invented. Bright and colorful pieces of Indian jewelry are traditionally set with a lot of precious and semi-precious gemstones.

Today the country is the world’s largest consumer of gold. The most of it is used for jewelry production and sold on the domestic market. In India the rapid development of jewelry industry goes with tradition’s cherishing. Almost all jewelry companies in the country are family-owned.

Diamond cutting and polishing is the second important sector of Indian jewelry industry. The first diamonds are thought to be mined in India. For centuries the country was the main producer of diamonds in the world. The deposits had been exhausted by the XVII – XVIIIth century. At that time first diamonds were found in Brazil. The country started their mining and took the first place in diamond production. The new stage of development of Indian diamond industry started in the XX century, when diamond cutting was established in Surat. The country has achieved much success in cutting and polishing of small diamonds and become the world’s largest exporter of them. Today more than ninety percent of diamonds are cut and polished in India.